Yom Teruah – Rosh HaShanah

This article is not yet finished, and is posted so that in the event that I never finish it, that it may be available to others who can refine it and make use of it. Being unfinished, it may contain repeated information and rituals which I was in the process of comparing, combining, and distilling. It may also contain information of interpretations and rituals that I ultimately in whole or in part disagree with and was in the process of removing. It may also be missing key information and rituals that I deem to be important and was in the process of adding. The formatting of the document may also be poorly arranged. These are the drawbacks to an unfinished document.

Thankfully this document is nearly finished, with only the four toasts needing refinement.

The start of the autumn High Holy Days is Yom Teruah, which falls on the 1st day of the 7th Biblical month. After the Babylonian exile, the Jewish people adopted several elements from the Babylonian calendar, one of those being that the Babylonian New Years was on the same day as Yom Teruah, thus many modern Jews refer to this day as Rosh HaShana or the Head of The Year and celebrate it as New Years. Yom Teruah means Day of Trumpets, and during this day the priests stood on special places at the Temple in Jerusalem and blew silver trumpets and the people blew shofars, they blew the trumpets and shofars a hundred times on Yom Teruah.

Below I will list a Messianic Yom Teruah liturgy and traditions.

Yom Teruah (Day of the Sounding of the Shofar) Service

The theme for the autumn feasts can be summarized as: Repentance, Renewal, Restoration, and in the Brit haDashah — Renewed Covenant, we can add: Regathering and Rejoicing.

Lighting of the Candles and Initial Blessing

Lady of the Household:

Baruch atah adonai eloheynu melech ha olam asher kidshanu b’mitz’vo’tov v’tsivanu l’hadleek nayr shel yoni tov.Blessed are You, O Lord our God, King of the Universe, who has hallowed us by your commandments and has instructed us to kindle the lights for the festival.

O Lord our God, in this solemn season we pray to you, be near to us in our trials, strengthen us when crises surround us.

May the festival lights always remind us of your power to heal and forgive and of your love which is always available to us, even when we don’t deserve it. May the light of our faith in you always shine brightly in our hearts, and give us courage equal to whatever circumstances we may face. Bless us this Year, and all those who serve you, with life, health, and peace. Amen.

Shehechiyanu

The Shehechiyanu blessing thanks God for sustaining us, and is said at momentous occasions. 

Barukh ata adonai elohenu melekh ha’olam, shehecheyanu, v’kiyimanu, v’higiyanu la’z’man ha’zehBlessed are You, O Lord our God, King of the Universe, who has given us life, sustained us, and allowed us to reach this moment.

Man of the house (In the style of Liturgy of the Hours): 

God, come to my assistance.

All: Lord, make haste to help me.

Man of the house: Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit:

All: As it was in the beginning, is now, and will be forever. Amen.

Examination of Conscience

A brief examination of conscience. Then say the Act of Contrition, together.

All: My God, I believe in You, I hope in You, I love You above all things with all my soul, with all my heart, and with all my strength. I love You because You are infinitely good and worthy of being loved. And because I love You, I am sorry with all my heart for having offended You. Have mercy on me, a sinner. Amen.

Hymn: All Creatures of our God and King

(Recite together)

All: All creatures of our God and King, lift up your voices, let us sing:

Alleluia, alleluia!

Thou burning sun of golden beams, thou silver moon that gently gleams,

O praise him, O praise him, Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia!

And all ye men of tender heart, forgiving others, take your part, O sing ye alleluia!

Ye who long pain and sorrow bear, praise God and on him cast your care:

O praise him, O praise him, Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia!

all things their Creator bless, and worship him in humbleness, O praise him, Alleluia!

Praise, praise the Father, praise the Son, and praise the Spirit, Three in One.

O praise him, O praise him, Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia!

Leviticus 23: 23-25

Reader: Antiphon 1: May his great name be blessed for ever and ever!

And the Lord said to Moses, “Say to the sons of Israel: In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you shall observe a day of solemn rest.

“A memorial proclaimed with a blast of trumpets, a holy convocation. You shall do no laborious work, and you shall present an offering by fire to the Lord.

All: Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

All: Ant. 1: May his great name be blessed for ever and ever!

Psalm 122 

(Set up 2 sides to alternate verses)

Reader: Antiphon 2: O Lord, open my lips and my mouth may declare your praise !

I was glad when they said to me,

Let us go to the house of the Lord.

Our feet have been standing within your gates, O Jerusalem. Jerusalem, built as a city which is bound firmly together, to which the tribes go up, the tribes of the Lord, as was decreed for Israel, to give thanks to the name of the Lord. There thrones for judgment were set, the thrones of the house of David.

Pray for the Peace of Jerusalem!

May they prosper, those who love you!

Peace be within your walls, and security within your towers!”

For my brethren and companions’ sake,

I will say “Peace be within you!

For the sake of the house of the Lord our God, I will seek your good.

All: Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

All: Antiphon 2: O Lord, open my lips and my mouth may declare your praise!

From the Synagogue Prayer: Amidah

Reader: Antiphon 3: You are holy and your name is holy and holy beings praise you daily

Deserving of praise are you, O Lord our God and God of our fathers, God of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Jesus, the great, mighty, revered and exalted God who bestows faithful love and is master of all.

Mindful of the patriarchs’ love for you, you have in your love brought a redeemer to their children’s children for the sake of your name. Remember us unto life, O King who delights in life, and inscribe us in the Book of Life so that we may live worthily for your sake.

You are mighty forever, O Lord; you bring to life the dead; you are powerfully able to save. You sustain the living with faithful love; you bring the dead to life with great mercy; you support all who fall, and heal the sick; you free the enslaved and are faithful to those who sleep in the dust.

Who is like you, Lord of might? Who can be compared to you, O King? You order death and restore life, and make your salvation flourish. Yes, you are faithful to raise the dead.

All: Antiphon 3: You are holy and your name is holy and holy beings praise you daily.

Reading : Deut 6: 4-7 (Shema and Vahavta)

Reader: Hear O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord; and you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and all your soul, and with all your might. And these words which I command you this day shall be upon your heart; and you shall teach them diligently to your children, and shall talk of them when you sit in your house, and when you walk by the way, and when you lie down, and when you rise. And you shall bind them as a sign upon your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes. And you shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates.

Responsory:

Reader:

O Lord, we give you thanks for this time of repentance, redemption, and rejoicing.

All:

O Lord, we give you thanks for this time of repentance, redemption, and rejoicing.

Reader:

O Lord, you have brought us to this moment

All:

And we await your return.

Reader:

Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.

All:

O Lord, we give you thanks for this time of repentance, redemption, and rejoicing.

Antiphon: We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet.

Gospel Canticle: 1 Thess 4:13-18 (Recite together)

All: 

But we would not have you ignorant, brethren, concerning those who are asleep, that you may not grieve as others do who have no hope. For since we believe that Yeshua died and rose again, even so, through Yeshua, God will bring with him those who have fallen asleep. For this we declare to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, shall not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the archangel ‘s call, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Messiah will rise first; then we who are alive, who are left shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air; and so shall always be with the Lord. Therefore comfort one another with these words.

All: Antiphon: We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet!

Prayer

Leader: Bless this year unto us, O Lord our God, and set a blessing on the face of the earth. Provide for us from Your goodness, and bless our year. Blessed are You, O Lord our God, King of the Universe, who blesses the years.

Blowing Of the Shofar

On this feast day, the shofar is blown one hundred times. The shofars are blown in a set pattern of three different sounds, blown three times each for a total of nine blasts. This series of patterns is repeated eleven times for a total of ninety-nine blasts. The one hundredth blast is set apart and is known as the “Last Trump”.

Those who will blow the shofar, recite this blessing:

Baruch atah Adonai Eloheinu melekh ha-olam asher kidshanu b’mitzvotav v’tzivanu lishmoa kol shofar.Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, who sanctifies us by Your commandments, and commands us to hear the sound of the shofar.

All: Amen

There are four primary types of shofar blasts:

Tekiah – A long single blast (the sound of the King’s coronation)

Shevarim – Three short wail-like blasts (signifying repentance)

Teru’ah – Nine staccato blasts of alarm (to awaken the soul)

Tekiah ha-Gadol – A great long blast (for as long as you can blow!)

Based upon the Jewish prayer for mourners: Half Kaddish

Leader: Let us remember all those loved ones who have passed on, especially this past year, and for all our loved ones who have passed.

Magnified and hallowed be the great name of God throughout the world which he created according to his will. May his kingdom grow during your lifetime, during the lifetime of all the house of Israel and of all people, speedily soon! And let us all say, Amen.

All: Blessed, praised and glorified, exalted, extolled and honored, magnified and lauded be the name of the Holy One, blessed be he, whose glory transcends, yes is beyond all blessings and hymns, praises and songs which are uttered in the world; and say, Amen.

Adon Olam

All: 

Lord of the world, the King Supreme

Ere aught was formed, he reigned alone

When by his will all things were wrought

Then was his sovereign name made known.

And when this age shall cease to be

He still shall reign in majesty He was, he is and he will be All glorious eternally.

Incomparable, the Lord is one

No other can his nature share

Without beginning, without end

Unto him all strength and majesty.

He is my living God who saves

My rock when grief or sorrows fall My banner and my refuge strong My cup of life whenever I call.

And in his hand I place my soul Asleep, awake, for he is near

And with my soul and body too

God is with me, there is no fear.

Father: Happy are they who dwell in Thy house, O Lord, they will ever be praising Thee.

All: Happy is the people whose God is the Lord.

Father: Magnified and sanctified be His great Name in the world He hath created according to His will.

All: May His great Name be praised for ever and ever.

Father: Unto all generations we will declare Thy greatness and to all eternity we shall proclaim Thy holiness.

All: Thy praise, O Lord, shall not depart from our mouth forever, for Thou art a great and holy God and King. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, our holy God, and blessed be Thy Son, Yeshua.

Father: Bless this year unto us, O Lord our God, and set a blessing on the face of the earth. Provide for us from Thy goodness and bless our year. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, who blesses the years. Cause us, O Lord, to lie down in peace and raise us up, O King, to life, and spread over us the canopy of Thy peace; direct us with Thy wisdom and save us for the sake of Thy name. Be a shield about us; protect us from every enemy, pestilence, weapon, famine and sorrow; remove the adversary from before and behind us. Shelter us in the shadow of Thy wings. Guard our going out and our coming in, unto life and peace from this day for ever more. Have mercy, O Lord, on Thy people, and may we together sing Thy glory and praise in Thy Kingdom.

We ask this in the name of Yeshua, who lives and reigns with Thee and Ruach haKodesh, one God for ever and ever.

All: Amen.

Aaronic Benediction

(Numbers 6. Recite together as we make the Sign of the Cross)

Y’varech’kha adonai v’yeeshm’rekha; a’ayr adonai panel aylekha veekhoonekha, yeesa’ adonai panav aylekha v’yasaym l’kha shalom.May the Lord bless you and keep you;May the Lord make his face shine upon you and be gracious to you; May the Lord lift up his countenance upon you and grant you peace.

Blessing over the bread

Challah is a braided leavend egg bread eaten on most sabbaths and holidays. On Rosh HaShanah, it is tradition to eat round challah to symbolize a crown that reflects our coronating God as the King of the world; the circular shape also symbolizes the circle of time, and the fullness of the year. The Rosh HaShanah challah also has raisins in it to symbolise the sweet moments throughout the year, and is drizzled with honey on top in the hopes for a year covered in sweetness.

Baruch Atah Adonai Eloheynu Melech HaOlam, ha-motzee lekhem meen ha-aretz.Blessed are you O Lord our God, King of the Universe, who brings forth bread from the earth.

Blessing over wine

Baruch Atah Adonai Eloheynu Melech HaOlam, boray p’ree ha-gahfen.Blessed are you O Lord our God, King of the Universe, who creates the fruit of the vine.
Barukh atah Adonai Eloheinu melekh ha’olam asher bakhar banu m’kol am,v’romemanu m’kol lashon v’kidishanu b’mitzvotav. Vatiten lanu Adonai Eloheinu b’ahava et Yom HaShabbat ha’zeh v’et)Yom HaZikaron ha’zeh. Yom zichron teruah b’ahava mikra kodesh, zekher le’yitziat mitzrayim. Ki vanu vakharta v’otanu kidashtah m’kol ha’amim, u’devarkha emet v’kayam la’ad.Barukh atah Adonai melekh al kol ha’aretz, mekadesh haShabbat v’Yisrael v’Yom HaZikaron.Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, who has chosen us from among all peoples and sanctified us with Your commandments. Lord our God, in love you have given us this Sabbath day and this Day of Remembrance; a day for recalling the sounding of the Shofar with love, a sacred convocation, a commemoration of the Exodus from Egypt. For You chose us and sanctified us from among all peoples, and Your word is truth and endures forever.Blessed are You, Lord, Ruler over all the earth, who sanctifies the Sabbath and Israel and the Day of Remembrance.

Dipping of the Apples/Challah:

It is customary to eat apples dipped in honey to symbolize a wish for a good and sweet year.

Blessing: 

May it be the Lord’s will to renew for us a year that will be good and sweet

.(ÄII: Dip either apple or challah in honey together.)

Blessing for meal

Bless us O Lord, and these Thy gifts, which we are about to receive from Thy bounty, through Christ our Lord.

The Four Toasts

1st Toast: Yom T’ruah – Day of Trumpets

Blessed are you O Lord, God Almighty, King, we give you thanks for this Yom Teruah, this Day of Trumpets. 

“Teruah!” is the shouts of the shofar, your resounding call which awakens our souls. 

“And in that day a great trumpet will be blown, and those who were lost in the land of Assyria and those who were driven out to the land of Egypt will come and worship the Lord on the holy mountain at Jerusalem.”-Isaiah 27:13

Therefore on this solemn day, we must ask ourselves, “When, during this past year, have I ignored God’s call?” And we humbly pray: 

All:

Lord, please open my ears and my heart, so that I may be open to hearing your call and doing your will.

Lord, You likewise call for us to blow the shofar, amplifying our prayers and praising your glory. 

“Speak to the people of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you shall observe a day of solemn rest, a memorial proclaimed with blast of trumpets, a holy convocation.”-Leviticus 23:24

“Praise him with the sound of the trumpet; praise him with lute and harp!”-Psalm 150:3

Therefore, together we raise a glass in thanks for Yom Teruah:

Blessing for Hearing the Shofar

Baruch atah Adonai Eloheinu melekh ha-olam asher kidshanu b’mitzvotav v’tzivanu lishmoa kol shofar.Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, who sanctifies us by Your commandments, and commands us to hear the sound of the shofar.

2nd Toast: Yom haDin – Day of Judgment

Blessed are you O Lord, God Almighty, King, we give you thanks for this Yom haDin, this Day of Judgment.

Lord, we look to you like a bride looks to her bridegroom, and we says,
“I am my beloved’s and my beloved is mine.” – Song of Solomon 6:3

As we longingly await and prepare ourselves for our union with you, this past month of Elul we have been particularly called to focus on Heshbon haNefesh, on an accounting of the soul, reflecting on our triumphs and mistakes, and asking for forgiveness as we work to forgive others. We pray that in that time the Lord has revealed our faults, where we need improvement, and given us the wisdom and strength to return to Him.

“If I were to make a burnt offering, you would not accept it. The sacrifice pleasing to God is a broken spirit. God, you will not despise a broken and humbled heart.” – Psalm 51:17

My sacrifice, O God, is a broken spirit; a contrite and humble heart, O God, you will not spurn.

Lord, you call me to look backwards so that I may be able to move forward, 

Faithful and loving God of compassion,

“Blot out my transgressions. Completely wash away my guilt and cleanse me from my sin. For I am aware of my transgression, and my sin is always before me” – Psalm 51:2-3

So you are right when you pass sentence;

you are blameless when you judge.

“Surely you desire integrity in the inner self, teach me wisdom deep within.” – Psalm 51:6

“Purify me with hyssop, and I will be clean; wash me, and I will be whiter than snow. Let me hear joy and gladness; let the bones you have broken rejoice. Turn your face away from my sins and blot out all my guilt. God, create a clean heart for me and renew a steadfast spirit within me.” – Psalm 51:7-10

“Restore the joy of your salvation to me, and sustain me by giving me a willing spirit.” – Psalm 51:12

Together, we make a toast to Judgment, Justice and Transparency:

“Today we stand before the Mirror of All, to see ourselves as we are. We come with no gifts, no bribes, no illusions, no excuses, no defenses. We come with the error and heartache we ourselves have caused, we come with a contrite heart, but also joy and remembered moments of love and right doing. Let us be bold enough to see, humble enough to feel, daring enough to turn and embrace the way of justice, mercy and simplicity.”

Therefore, together we raise a glass in thanks for Yom haDin:

Blessing to Pursue Justice

Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melekh ha’olam, asher kid’shanu b’mitzvotav v’tzivanu lirdof tzedek.We praise You, Lord our God, King of the universe, who calls us to holiness through mitzvot, commanding us to pursue justice.

Reflection Questions for Yom HaDin – Day of Judgment

From whom do I need forgiveness?

Who do I need to forgive?

3rd Toast: Yom haZikaron – Day of Remembrance

Blessed are you O Lord, God Almighty, King, we give you thanks for this Yom haZikaron, this Day of Remembrance.

Remembrance is a link between the ages, therefore recollection is a holy act. We sanctify the present by remembering the past, by remembering God’s blessings, God’s Moedim, God’s Instruction, and doing them, we become one with Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all those who have fulfilled your commandments throughout the ages, uniting past and present throughout all time, for you are the God of eternity, God from age to age. Yom Teruah is a day of remembrance – a monumental moment – where we remember Your Word, our ancestors, and our actions, and together with them throughout all time, we fulfil your commandments.

Reflection Questions for Yom HaZikaron – Day of Remembrance

Where did I dedicate my time, energy and resources in the past year?

Who and what do I want to remember from the past year?

Therefore, together we raise a glass in thanks for Yom haZikaron:

Blessing of Memory

Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melekh ha’olam, yehֹi zichronam shelakhem kadoshim livracha tzedek v’shalom.Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the Universe, may the memory of your saints be a blessing of righteousness and peace.

4th Toast: Yom Harat Olam – Day of Re-creation

Blessed are you O Lord, God Almighty, King, we give you thanks for this Yom Harat Olam, this Day of Re-creation.

Tradition states that Adam and Eve were created on Yom Teruah, making this day the birthday for humanity; and like our birthdays, it is a moment of growth, renewal and re-creation. We open ourselves up and rewrite our stories and our aspirations for the next year.

Each moment is an opportunity to grow and become a new creation. We must ask ourselves, “Am I living as the kind of person God would want me to be, as a person created in His likeness? In what ways can I grow, what choices can I make so that I may be renewed and re-created in His image?”

Therefore, together we raise a glass in thanks for Yom Harat Olam:

Blessing of Creation

Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melekh ha’olam, oseh maasei v’reishit.We praise You, Lord our God, King of the universe, who makes the works of creation.
L’Shanah Tovah tikatevuMay you be inscribed for a good year

Recipes

Silan – Date Honey

Silan is a sweet honey-like syrup made from dates.

Ingredients:
Dates

Water

Directions:

Place dates and water in a saucepan or pot and bring to a boil.
Once boiling, reduce to a low simmer and cook for 2 hours or until the dates are very soft and starting to dissolve.
If the mixture begins to look dry, add a little more water; the dates should be mostly covered by liquid throughout the process. By the end of cooking the liquid should be thick and brown.

Let cool to room temperature.
Pour the liquid through a strainer lined with cheesecloth into a large mixing bowl.

Add small batches of dates, about 1 cup at a time, to the cheesecloth and squeeze firmly, extracting as much liquid as possible.
Remove the pulp and repeat with the remaining dates.

Pour the strained date liquid back into the saucepan or pot. 

Bring to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer for another 30 minutes or until the liquid thickens enough to coat the back of a cold spoon, about the consistency of thick maple syrup. 

Remove from heat.

The Silan Date Honey will continue to thicken as it cools. Once it reaches room temperature, it should be the consistency of honey. 

If it isn’t thick enough, place back into the pan or pot and re-simmer for a bit.

Biblical Lekakh Honey Cake

Ingredients:

3 cups flour

1 cup honey

½ cup olive oil

½ cup milk, dairy or plant-based

Optional Ingredients:

½ cup raisins

1 teaspoon ground ginger

1 teaspoon cinnamon

½ teaspoon ground cloves

½ teaspoon ground nutmeg

½ teaspoon ground mace

Directions:

Preheat the oven to 350°. 

Line the bottom of a 9” round cake pan with parchment paper and oil the interior.

Mix together the flour and honey. 

Mix in the olive oil. 

If desired, add in the optional ingredients.

Add the milk, and mix thoroughly.

Spread the batter into the pan, smoothing with a spatula. 

Bake for 40 minutes.

Ashishim – Red Lentil Pancakes

Ashishim is mentioned in the Torah, the Song of Songs, and the Mishnah. The Jerusalem Talmud even contains a detailed recipe for making Ashishim.

Ingredients:

2 cups red split lentils

1 cup flour

2 eggs

⅚ cup sesame seeds

⅙ cup coriander seeds

olive oil, for frying

honey or Silan

Directions:

Rinse the red split lentils until the water runs clear.
Add the lentils into a pot, and cover with about four cups of water. Place on medium-high heat and let cook them for 20 minutes, stirring periodically to prevent sticking to the bottom of the pot.

Strain into a bowl and let cool.

When the lentils have cooled, mash them using a wooden spoon or a food processor, until they form a fairly smooth paste. 

Place into a large bowl.

Mix into the lentils the flour, forming a smooth batter. 

Mix in the sesame seeds, coriander seeds, and eggs, thoroughly mixing the batter together until it is well combined. 

Add the olive oil into a frying pan.
Heat the pan on medium-high heat until the olive oil starts to simmer.

Using a tablespoon, or by pouring, form the batter into small pancakes, about the size of your palm, and about as thick as your finger. 

Let cook for about 5 minutes, flip and cook the other side, about another 5 minutes.

Transfer to a paper towel-lined plate to drain.
Repeat with the remaining batter.

Once all of the batter has been cooked into pancakes, transfer the cakes onto plates and drizzle with honey.

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